JavaScript Fundamentals Part 2

Last year, I continued studying on Fundamentals of Javascript in the Odin Project Web Development 101. I decided to start off the New Year by doing a review of what I had studied a month ago.

I did the first JavaScript “Test Yourself” questions in this blog post.

These are the second JavaScript “test yourself” questions here and my answers below.

  • What are the seven data types of javascript?
  1. Number
  2. String
  3. Boolean
  4. Null
  5. Undefined
  6. Object
  7. Symbol
  • Which data type is NOT primitive?

Object.
This is because objects store collections of data and more complex entities.
Whereas, numbers, strings, booleans, null, undefined, and symbol are represented directly. Also, those data types cannot be changed (although, the variables they may be stored in can change).

  • What is the difference between single, double, and backtick quotes for strings?

Single and double quotes are the same. But they need to be used consistently, not mixed – ‘Hi’ or “Hi”
not “Hi’

Backtick quotes are extended functionality quotes. They allow us to embed variables and expressions into a string using  backticks:
stringtext ${variable} stringtext `

  • Which type of quote lets you embed variables/expressions into a string?

Backticks.

  • How do you embed variables/expressions into a string?

Using the dollar sign and { } brackets together.
The variable or expression would be written within the curly brackets.

  • How do you escape characters in a string?

​​​​​You can escape characters, like a  single, double, or backtick quote with a backslash before them \’ \” \`

  • What is the difference between slice/substring/substr?

These are three ways to extract part of a string.
The parameters are different in each:

  1. slice(start, end)
  2. substring(start, end)
  3. substr(start, length)

Slice extracts part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new sting.
Substring is similar to slice. Substr is different because you choose the length of the string you want to get, rather than the end point of the original string.

  • What are methods?

A method is a bit of functionality that is built into the language. They are properties which contain a function. So, slice(), substring(), and substr() are methods.
Also, indexOf() and search() are methods.

  • What are the three logical operators and what do they stand for?

&& AND

|| OR

! NOT

  • What are the comparison operators?

> greater than
< less than
>= greater than or equals
<= less than or equals
== equality check
!= not equals

  • What is nesting?

When we put something inside something else.
In JavaScript, we can nest if statements within each other. For example,
if (condition) {
xyz } else if (condition) {
zyx } else {
abc }

  • What are truthy and falsy values?

A value that evaluates as true in a Boolean context is truthy.
A value that evaluates as false in a Boolean context is falsy.

  • What are the falsy values in Javascript?
  1. false
  2. undefined
  3. null
  4. 0
  5. NaN
  • What is the syntax for an if/else if/else conditional?

if (condition) {
xyz } else if (condition) {
zyx } else {
abc }

  • What is the syntax for a switch statement?

switch (expression) {
case choice 1:
run this code
break;
case choice 2:
run this code
break;
default:
actually, just run this code
}

  • What is the syntax for a ternary operator?

(condition) ? run this code : run this code instead;

  • What is the relationship between null and undefined?

Null is a value. It means “nothing, empty, no value”.
Whereas, Undefined means there is a variable but “value has not been assigned”.

If you test equality:
null == undefined would be true
null === undefined would be false

This is because with strict equality they need to be the same type to return true. Null is an object, but undefined is a type of value itself.

  • What are conditionals?

Conditionals are statements which execute a block of code is certain conditions are true.
Conditional statements include:

  1. if
  2. else
  3. else if
  4. switch

 

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JavaScript Fundamentals Part 1

I started working on the Fundamentals of Javascript in the Odin Project Web Development 101.

These are the first “test yourself” questions here and my answers below.

  • How do you declare a variable?

You write “let”, “const”, or “var” followed by the name of the variable you want to create.

  • What are three different ways to declare a variable?

You can use “let”, “const”, or “var”.

  • Which one should you use when?

“Let” is the currently accepted way to declare a new variable. You should use it for any new variable, except constant (unchanging) variables, these can be declared with “const”.
“Var” is the older way of declaring variables. There are reasons for not using it because of it’s behaviour, but it is still seen in older scripts.

  • What are the rules for naming variables?
  1. Use letters, digits, $ or _
  2. First character cannot be a digit
  3. They are case sensitive – use camelCase
  4. Do not use non-English letters
  5. There are reserved words (e.g. let, class, return, function)
  6. Define the variable before using it
  7. Make names concise but descriptive and logical
  • What are operators, operands, and operations?

Operators – they define the operation to be performed between two operands.

Operands – the things operated on (like numbers)

Operations – when we perform an action between two numbers or variables (like division, addition, incrementation)

  • What is concatenation and what happens when you add numbers and strings together?

Concatenation is when two things get added together as a string. Like, “My” “3rd” “Dessert” when added would become “My3rdDesert”.

If you add numbers and strings together they will concatenate into a string. Like, “2” “Apples” would be “2Apples”.

  • What are the different type of operators in JavaScript?

+ Addition
– Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Division
% Modulus
++ Increment
— Decrement
= Assignment
/= Division assignment
+= Addition assignment
-= Subtraction assignment
*= Multiplication assignment

** Exponentiation

=== Strict Equality
!== Strict Non-Equality
< Less than
> Greater than
<= Less than or equal to
>= Greater than or equal to

Rarely used bitwise operators:
& AND
| OR
^ XOR
~ NOT
<< LEFT SHIFT
>> RIGHTSHIFT
>>> ZERO-FILL RIGHT SHIFT

  • What is the difference between == and ===?

== is equality.
=== is strict equality.
e.g. let x = “123”;
let y = new Number(123);

x == y is true.
x === y is not true.
Equality is just the same value. But strict equality needs to be the same value and the same type (x is a number, y is a number object).

  • What are operator precedence values?

Similar to high school math – PEDMAS (parenthesis, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, subtraction). These are calculated in JavaScript in order of precedence. The operators are also included in this precedence list.

  • What are the increment/decrement operators?

Increment and decrement take the value and then change it. Increment adds 1 to the value. Decrement minuses 1 from the value.

  • What is the difference between prefixing and post-fixing them?

Prefix – returns new value:
If you put the increment/decrement operator first (prefix) it will perform the action of incrementing/decrementing and then returns the new value to be used right away.

Postfix – returns old value:
If you put the increment/decrement operator second (post-fix) it will return the old value first, then increment/decrement the value.

  • What are assignment operators?

Assignment operators assign a value to a variable.

They are also able to change the value while assigning it.
E.g.,
n *= 3+5 is short for n = n *  (3+5)

The assignment operators have the same precedence as a normal assignment operator, so they run after most other calculations are already done.

  • What is the “Unary +” Operator?

Unary operator acts on a single operand to operate.

For example, x = +x;

If you had let a = 10 then console.log(-a) it would show “-10”.

Whereas, in a binary operation like x + y there are two operands. This means the “+” acts as addition and concatenates them.

 

JavaScript for Beginners

I watched the JavaScript for beginners Le Wagon workshop on YouTube over the past two days.

ScreenShot of YouTube in one window and Evernote in the other
Image © Rebeccode

I watched it at lunch over two days and now I’m reviewing it to write up my key notes.

I did a little bit of JavaScript on FreeCodeCamp a few years ago, managed to make a rock, paper, scissors game. Then promptly forgot everything I’d ever learned about JavaScript.

This time around after seeing someone else using it and explaining it, I feel more confident. Also, I lost exactly how he was doing things part-way through the video (around the time that he did the second exercise of filtering names starting with a B and counting the letters in the string)

The recommended reading from this lecture is JavaScript – The Good Parts.

They say because it shows you best practices for writing JavaScript and explains it clearly.